What is the best ulcerative colitis treatment?

M. F.
24 Min Read

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. This condition causes inflammation and sores in the colon and rectum that can lead to a range of symptoms, from mild to severe. While there is no known cure for ulcerative colitis, individuals who are affected by it ask themselves one question everyday: What is the best treatment of ulcerative colitis?

Treatments for ulcerative colitis that work best usually combine medicine with lifestyle changes. Advanced therapy can also be an option in certain situations. Developing a customized treatment plan that considers the severity of the ailment, medical history, and other aspects requires collaboration with healthcare providers.

Medication for Ulcerative Colitis

In the treatment of ulcerative colitis, medication is often used to achieve and maintain remission. There are several types of medication available, each with its own benefits and potential side effects.


Aminosalicylates, also known as 5-ASAs, are a type of medication that work to reduce inflammation in the colon. They are often used as a first-line treatment for mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. Commonly prescribed aminosalicylates include mesalamine, sulfasalazine, and balsalazide.

Although most people tolerate aminosalicylates well, some people may have adverse symptoms such headaches, nausea, or diarrhea. Rarely, they could result in an allergic reaction.


Corticosteroids, such as prednisone and budesonide, are another type of anti-inflammatory medication commonly used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. They are often used to bring on remission quickly in individuals with moderate to severe symptoms.

While corticosteroids can be effective at reducing inflammation, they are generally not recommended for long-term use due to their potential side effects. These may include weight gain, mood changes, increased risk of infection, and osteoporosis.


Immunosuppressants, such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine, work to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation. They are often used in individuals with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis who have not responded to other medications.

While effective, immunosuppressants may increase the risk of infection and may require regular blood tests to monitor for potential liver toxicity.


Biologics, such as infliximab and adalimumab, are a newer type of medication that work to block specific proteins involved in inflammation. They are often used in individuals with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis who have not responded to other medications.

While effective, biologics may increase the risk of infection and may require regular monitoring for potential side effects.

The intensity of symptoms, the patient’s response to treatment, and their medical history will all influence the kind of medication that is prescribed for ulcerative colitis. For the finest and safest treatment plan to be implemented, constant collaboration with a healthcare provider is essential.

Lifestyle Changes for Managing Ulcerative Colitis

Along with medication, making lifestyle changes can be an effective way to manage ulcerative colitis symptoms. Exercise, stress management, and dietary modifications can help improve quality of life for individuals with the condition.

The Role of Exercise

Regular exercise has been shown to help reduce inflammation and improve overall physical and mental health in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Engaging in low-impact exercise such as walking, yoga, or swimming can help reduce stress and promote a healthy weight. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before beginning a new exercise routine.

Stress Management

Stress can trigger ulcerative colitis flare-ups, so learning stress management techniques is crucial for effectively managing the condition. Deep breathing exercises, meditation, and yoga are just a few techniques that can help. Engaging in activities that bring joy and relaxation, such as reading, spending time with loved ones, or pursuing hobbies, is also important for mental health and stress reduction.

Dietary Modifications

A well-balanced diet can help reduce inflammation and promote digestive health for individuals with ulcerative colitis. It may be helpful to avoid trigger foods such as spicy or high-fiber foods and to maintain consistent mealtimes. A healthcare professional or registered dietitian can help create a personalized nutrition plan based on an individual’s specific needs and preferences.

Lifestyle Changes for Ulcerative Colitis Takeaways
Exercise regularly, with healthcare professional guidance Regular exercise can help reduce inflammation, stress, and promote a healthy weight.
Manage stress through deep breathing, meditation, and enjoyable activities Stress can trigger flare-ups, so learning stress management techniques is crucial for effectively managing the condition.
Follow a well-balanced diet and avoid trigger foods A well-balanced diet can help reduce inflammation and promote digestive health for individuals with ulcerative colitis.

Overall, making lifestyle changes, in conjunction with medication, can help individuals with ulcerative colitis better manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Advanced therapies for ulcerative colitis

For individuals with ulcerative colitis who do not respond to traditional treatment methods, advanced therapies may offer a promising alternative. Two of the most notable options are targeted immunotherapy and stem cell transplantation.

Targeted immunotherapy

Targeted immunotherapy is a treatment method that involves using biologic agents to target the immune system cells that are responsible for triggering inflammation in the digestive tract. The biologics used in targeted immunotherapy are designed to selectively block specific proteins or pathways that contribute to this inflammation.

Adalimumab and infliximab are among the most often utilized biologics in targeted immunotherapy for ulcerative colitis. It may take many weeks for these injections or intravenous infusions to start showing symptomatic relief.

While targeted immunotherapy can be effective in controlling symptoms for some individuals with ulcerative colitis, it does come with some risks. The most common side effects of biologics are related to supressing the immune system. These side effects may result in increased susceptibility to infections, including serious bacterial or fungal infections.

Stem cell transplantation

Stem cell transplantation is an experimental treatment method that involves harvesting stem cells from the individual with ulcerative colitis and reintroducing them after chemotherapy to “reset” the immune system. This reset allows the immune system to recognize the body’s own cells and tissues properly.

Although stem cell transplantation is not yet widely available and is still being researched, some individuals with ulcerative colitis have reported remission of symptoms with this method. However, there are significant risks associated with stem cell transplantation, which include sepsis and organ damage.

Cutting-edge medicines are not currently the first line of treatment for ulcerative colitis, and a healthcare provider should be consulted before beginning any new treatment.

ulcerative colitis treatments

  • Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are two types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that share similarities but also have distinct differences in their symptoms and treatment.
  • UC is primarily characterized by inflammation of the colon and rectum, while CD can occur anywhere in the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus.
  • However, some individuals may develop a condition called Crohn’s colitis, which is a type of CD that affects the colon similarly to UC.
  • When it comes to treatment, the approach for UC may include medication, lifestyle changes, advanced therapies, and sometimes surgery in severe cases.
  • For CD, treatment may be similar or may require different medications and surgical interventions depending on the location and severity of the disease.

Comparing Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease Symptoms

Ulcerative Colitis Symptoms Crohn’s Disease Symptoms
Abdominal Pain Common Common
Diarrhea Common Common
Blood in Stool Common Less common
Fever Uncommon Common
Weight Loss Common Common
Anemia Common Common
Mouth Sores Uncommon Common
Eye Inflammation Uncommon Uncommon

Differentiating Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease Treatment Strategies

While there are similarities in treatment, the approach for UC and CD can vary based on the location and severity of the disease.

  • Medications commonly used to treat UC include aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and biologics, while treatment for CD may include some of these medications as well as antibiotics and antidiarrheal agents.
  • Lifestyle changes such as exercising, managing stress, and adopting a balanced diet can improve symptoms for both UC and CD.
  • Advanced therapies available to individuals with UC and CD may include targeted immunotherapy and stem cell transplantation, but their availability and effectiveness may vary.

Dietary Considerations for Ulcerative Colitis

Individuals with ulcerative colitis often experience digestive discomfort and symptoms after consuming certain foods. Therefore, it is important to create a well-balanced diet that supports digestive health and reduces the risk of flare-ups.

Foods to Avoid:

Some common foods that may trigger symptoms in individuals with ulcerative colitis include:

  • Spicy foods
  • High-fiber foods, such as raw fruits and vegetables, nuts, and seeds
  • Alcohol
  • Caffeine
  • Certain dairy products
  • Red meat
  • Processed foods

Foods to Incorporate:

When creating a diet to support digestive health, individuals with ulcerative colitis may benefit from incorporating:

  • Low-fiber fruits and vegetables, such as cooked or canned varieties
  • Lean protein sources, such as chicken, fish, and tofu
  • Complex carbohydrates, such as brown rice and whole-grain bread
  • Healthy fats, such as avocado, nuts, and olive oil
  • Foods high in omega-3 fatty acids, such as salmon and walnuts
  • Probiotic-rich foods, such as yogurt and kefir

Tips for Creating a Well-Balanced Diet:

Creating a well-balanced diet that supports digestive health and reduces the risk of flare-ups can be challenging. Here are some tips to keep in mind:

  • Eat smaller, more frequent meals throughout the day to reduce digestive strain
  • Avoid eating too close to bedtime
  • Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water throughout the day
  • Keep a food diary to track which foods may trigger symptoms
  • Consult with a registered dietitian to create a personalized diet plan

Symptoms and diagnosis of ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes chronic inflammation of the digestive tract. The symptoms of this disease can vary from person to person, but the most common symptoms include:

  • Abdominal pain and cramping
  • Diarrhea, often with blood or pus
  • Rectal pain and bleeding
  • Urgency to defecate
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue

However, these symptoms are not specific to ulcerative colitis and can also be present in other gastrointestinal conditions, such as Crohn’s disease or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is crucial to develop an effective treatment plan.

The diagnostic process for ulcerative colitis typically involves a combination of medical evaluation, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and endoscopic procedures. These tests may include:

Medical Evaluation and Laboratory Tests Imaging Studies Endoscopic Procedures
Physical examination CT scan Flexible sigmoidoscopy
Blood tests to check for signs of inflammation in the body MRI Colonoscopy
Fecal calprotectin test to measure inflammation in the intestines X-ray Biopsy

During endoscopic procedures, a thin, flexible tube called an endoscope is passed through the rectum and into the colon to allow visual inspection of the lining of the digestive tract. Biopsies may be taken during the procedure for further examination under a microscope.

inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis

Managing flare-ups and maintaining remission

Individuals with ulcerative colitis may experience episodes of symptom flare-ups, making it essential to have an effective management plan in place. A combination of medication adjustments and lifestyle modifications can help manage symptoms and promote remission. It is crucial always to consult with a healthcare professional when considering treatment changes or before making any adjustments to an existing plan.

Medication adjustments

Medications play a significant role in treating ulcerative colitis symptoms. For managing flare-ups, doctors may recommend increasing the dosage or adding a new medication to the current regimen. Steroids may help reduce inflammation in the short term; however, long-term use can lead to various complications such as infection, osteoporosis, and glaucoma. Biologics can be an alternative for those who do not respond to other treatments; however, they come with the risk of severe infections, allergic reactions, and infusion site reactions.

Lifestyle modifications

Healthy lifestyle choices are crucial to promoting remission and preventing flare-ups. Individuals should focus on reducing stress levels with techniques such as deep breathing exercises, meditation, and yoga. Incorporating regular exercise can help maintain a healthy weight and reduce symptoms. It is also important to maintain a balanced and nutritious diet and avoid trigger foods such as spicy or high-fiber foods. Some individuals may consider complementary treatments such as probiotics, which can have limited evidence for effectiveness in managing ulcerative colitis symptoms.

Regular follow-ups with healthcare professionals

Keeping up with regular appointments and monitoring of symptoms is critical for managing ulcerative colitis. A doctor may recommend regular colonoscopies or other tests to monitor disease activity and detect potential complications. Routine visits can also help ensure medication dosages are accurate and adjust treatment plans as needed.

Alternative and complementary therapies for ulcerative colitis

While conventional medicine is the primary course of treatment for ulcerative colitis, some individuals may consider alternative or complementary therapies to supplement their current treatment plan. However, it is important to note that these therapies should not replace medical treatment, but rather be used in conjunction with it.


Acupuncture, a traditional Chinese medicine practice, involves the insertion of fine needles into specific points on the body to stimulate healing and relieve pain. While there is limited scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness in treating ulcerative colitis, some individuals may find acupuncture helpful in managing their symptoms.

Herbal remedies

Traditionally, people have employed herbal medicines including peppermint oil, aloe vera, and curcumin to address the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. Although some research indicates that some treatments might have anti-inflammatory qualities, it is still unclear how well they work to treat ulcerative colitis. Furthermore, it’s critical to confirm that any herbal treatments are secure and won’t conflict with prescription drugs already in use.


Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that are beneficial for digestive health. While some studies suggest that probiotics may improve gut health and reduce inflammation in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease, there is not enough evidence to support their routine use as a treatment for ulcerative colitis. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any probiotic supplements.

Coping with the Emotional Impact of Ulcerative Colitis

Living with ulcerative colitis can be challenging, not just physically but also emotionally. The uncertainty and unpredictability of the disease can cause anxiety, depression, and other mental health challenges.

Emotional Challenges of Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis can have a significant impact on a person’s mood and emotional well-being. Fear and anxiety can arise from the unpredictability of flare-ups or the need to frequently use the restroom. People with ulcerative colitis may also feel depressed or isolated due to the difficulty of managing the condition.

Coping Strategies

There are many coping strategies individuals with ulcerative colitis can put into practice to manage the emotional impact of the disease, including:

  • Maintaining a healthy lifestyle with plenty of physical exercise, rest, and a nutritious diet
  • Reducing stress through relaxation techniques like meditation and deep breathing exercises
  • Support groups that may help people connect with others who have the same condition and share similar experiences
  • Working with a mental health professional or therapist

Support Resources for Ulcerative Colitis

There are many resources available for people with ulcerative colitis who need additional support, including:

Resource Description
National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) An organization offering resources and support for people experiencing mental health challenges
The Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation An organization providing information and support resources for people with ulcerative colitis and other inflammatory bowel diseases
Online Support Groups There are many online support groups and forums where people with ulcerative colitis can connect and share their experiences with others, such as the Crohn’s and Colitis Community on Reddit.


Individuals with ulcerative colitis require a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses their unique needs and circumstances. The best course of action may involve a combination of medication, lifestyle changes, and advanced therapies, tailored to the individual’s symptoms and disease severity. Regular follow-ups with healthcare professionals are crucial for successful management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Living with ulcerative colitis can be emotionally challenging, and individuals may experience psychological distress. It is vital for individuals to recognize the impact on their mental health and seek professional help if needed. Support resources and coping strategies are available to help individuals manage the emotional aspects of living with ulcerative colitis.

Overall, it is essential for individuals with ulcerative colitis to work closely with healthcare professionals to develop an effective treatment plan that promotes symptom relief and long-term management. With the right treatment and self-care strategies, individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can lead healthy and fulfilling lives.


What are the treatment options for ulcerative colitis?

The treatment options for ulcerative colitis include medication, lifestyle changes, advanced therapies, and alternative/complementary therapies. The specific treatment plan will depend on the severity of the disease and individual factors.

What dietary considerations are important for individuals with ulcerative colitis?

Individuals with ulcerative colitis should pay attention to their diet by avoiding trigger foods, such as spicy or high-fiber foods. They may benefit from a low-residue diet or specific dietary modifications recommended by a healthcare professional. A well-balanced diet rich in nutrients is crucial for supporting digestive health.

What are the common symptoms and diagnostic procedures for ulcerative colitis?

Common symptoms of ulcerative colitis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, blood tests, stool tests, and imaging studies like endoscopy or colonoscopy.

How can flare-ups be managed and remission maintained in ulcerative colitis?

Effective management of flare-ups and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis may involve adjusting medication, making lifestyle modifications, and regular follow-ups with healthcare professionals. It is essential to seek guidance from healthcare providers to develop an individualized plan.

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